sexta-feira, 5 de agosto de 2011

Ewingella americana

IntroductionEwingella americana is a gram negative rod, and the only species in the genus Ewingella. It was first identified and characterized in 1983. Ewingella is in the family Enterobacteriaceae. The organism is rarely reported as a human pathogen, though it has been isolated from a variety of clinical specimens including wound, sputum, urine, stool, blood, conjunctiva and peritoneal dialysate.[1] The bacterium is named in honor of William H. Ewing, an American biologist who contributed to modern taxonomy.

[edit] EpidemiologyRespiratory tract infections following retainment in intensive care units has been observed in several instances. Vascular bypass surgery is a reported risk factor for colonization.[2][3] Debate currently exists as to this organism's predilection for immunocompromised patients.[4]

[edit] Pathophysiology and BiochemistryE. americana is an organism with simple nutritional needs that can survive in water and citrate solution and preferentially grows at 4°C. Domestic sources of water including air conditioning units, ice baths and wound irrigation systems have been cited as sources of infection.[5]

[edit] References1.^ Nam-Hee Ryoo, Jung-Sook Ha, Dong-Seok Jeon, Jae-Ryong Kim, Hyun-Chul Kim. (2005). "A Case of Pneumonia Caused by Ewingella americana in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure.". J Korean Med Sci 20: 143–5. doi:10.3346/jkms.2005.20.1.143. ISSN 1011-8934. PMC 2808562. PMID 15716620.
2.^ Bear, N., K. P. Klugman, L. Tobiansky, and H. J. Koornhof. (1986). "Wound colonization by Ewingella americana.". J. Clin. Microbiol. 23 (3): 650–651. PMC 268717. PMID 3958154.
3.^ Devreese, K., G. Claeys, and G. Verschraegen. (1992). "Septicemia with Ewingella americana.". J. Clin. Microbiol. 30 (10): 2746–2747. PMC 270514. PMID 1400980.
4.^ Heizmann, W. R., and R. Michel. (1991). "Isolation of Ewingella americana from a patient with conjunctivitis.". Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 10 (11): 957–959. PMID 1794367.
5.^ Farmer, J. J., III, B. R. Davis, F. W. Hickman-Brenner, A. Mc-Whorther, G. P. Huntley-Carter, M. A. Asbury, C. Riddle, H. J. Wathern-Grady, C. Elias, G. R. Fanning, A. G. Steigerwalt, C. M. O’Hara, G. K. Morris, P. B. Smith, and D. J. Brenner. (1985). "Biochemical identification of new species and biogroups of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from clinical specimens.". J. Clin. Microbiol. 21 (1): 46–76. PMC 271578. PMID 3881471.
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